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The Movement in Natchez – Narrative Timeline

Spring, 1940 — Audley Maurice Mackel, a dentist from Natchez resurrects the Natchez chapter of the NAACP by collecting enough support and members to charter a new chapter. 1954 — An unprecedented number of blacks ( 400) vote in a special election, as the result of black Natchez Business and Civic League urging. There is […]

Rose Hill Baptist Church

Rose Hill Baptist Church is Mississippi’s oldest African-American Baptist congregation, dating back to the 1830s. It is also where leaders of the NAACP, including George Metcalfe and Wharlest Jackson, met to plan local activities. It is located at 607 Madison Street. Sources: “Rose Hill Baptist Church, Natchez, MS.” http://neworleanschurches.com/natchez_rose_hill_bap/index.htm

Natchez Deacons for Defense and Justice

The Natchez Deacons for Defense and Justice was a militant group founded after the attacks on George Metcalf and Wharlest Jackson and other acts of violence against the black community, many of which were perpetrated by the Klan, with the Natchez group considered one of the strongest in the state. A group of men had […]

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Natchez Women of the NAACP

A group of women from the Natchez NAACP organized to influence other black women suspected of being informers to white business leaders during the boycott. This work made all community members accountable to the efforts of the Natchez movement. Sources: Umoja, Akinyele Omowale. “‘We Will Shoot Back’: The Natchez Model and Paramilitary Organization in the […]

Mackel, Audley Maurice

Audley Maurice Mackel was a prominent dentist from Natchez who resurrected the Natchez chapter of the NAACP in the spring of 1940, by collecting enough support and members to charter a new chapter. He eventually served as the branch secretary. In the 1950s he was active in the Regional Council of Negro Leadership, the organization […]

Forks of the Road

Forks of the Road is the site of the second largest slave market in the U.S., with New Orleans having the largest. The market functioned from the 1820s to the Civil War. The site was recognized in 2004 following the efforts of a citizen group called the Forks of the Road Society. The historical marker […]

White, Ben Chester

Ben Chester White was the caretaker of the Carter family farm off Liberty Road in Natchez his entire life and was never involved in the Civil Rights Movement. Despite his elderly age of 67 and lack of involvement in the racial tumult of the 1960s, James L. Jones, Claude Fuller and Ernest Avants, all members […]

Metcalf, George and Jackson, Wharlest

George Metcalf and Wharlest Jackson both worked at the Armstrong Tire and Rubber Company and both were active members of the NAACP with Metcalf as president of the local chapter and Jackson as the treasurer. Jim Crow was well established at Armstrong, like many other industrial employers of the day. However, Metcalf and Jackson successfully […]

Jackson, James

James Jackson was a local barber and leader of the Deacons for Defense and Justice, a paramilitary group founded to protect the black community and activists. He was the first president of the group. Sources: Umoja, Akinyele Omowale. “‘We Will Shoot Back’: The Natchez Model and Paramilitary Organization in the Mississippi Freedom Movement.”Journal of Black […]

Stokes, James

James Stokes was a founder and spokesman for the Deacons for Defense and Justice. Sources: Umoja, Akinyele Omowale. “‘We Will Shoot Back’: The Natchez Model and Paramilitary Organization in the Mississippi Freedom Movement.”Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Jan., 2002), pp. 271-294.

Young, James

James Young was a founder and the first secretary of the Deacons for Defense and Justice. He developed bylaws and the organization’s charter. Sources: Umoja, Akinyele Omowale. “‘We Will Shoot Back’: The Natchez Model and Paramilitary Organization in the Mississippi Freedom Movement.”Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Jan., 2002), pp. 271-294.