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Yates, Gayle Graham

Yates was born and raised in Shubuta, Mississippi. She left for schooling and later returned to write a dynamic book about Shubuta. Yates has published several books listed below:

Life and Death in a Small Southern Town: Memories of Shubuta, Mississippi (2004)
Mississippi Mind: A Personal Cultural History of an American State (1990)
Harriet Martineau on Women (1985)
What Women Want (1976)

Sources:

http://www.southernscribe.com/reviews/history/Shubuta_MS.htm

Stonewall Public Swimming Pool

Stonewall, Miss., had a local community pool during the 1960s, but during the time of desegregation, the pool was shut down when it faced the possibility of integration. In 2006, Gil Carmichael, a businessman from Mississippi decided to excavate the pool, and reopen the pool for blacks and whites. The New York Times wrote a story about on September 11, 2006.

Sources:

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/18/us/18pool.html?ex=1316232000&en=17455f68f3b49c33&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss

Lynching of Charlie Lang and Ernest Green

In October 1942, Charlie Lang and Ernest Green, two fourteen year old boys, were lynched in Shubuta. The Bitter River, a now-famous Langston Hughes poem, is written in reference to the lynching of Charlie and Ernest:

The Bitter River
(Dedicated to the memory of Charlie Lang and Ernest Green, each fourteen years old when lynched together beneath the Shubuta Bridge over the Chicasawhay River in Mississippi, October 12th, i942.)

There is a bitter river
Flowing through the South.
Too long has the taste of its water Been in my mouth.
There is a bitter river Dark with filth and mud.
Too long has its evil poison
Poisoned my blood.

I’ve drunk of the bitter river
And its gall coats the red of my tongue,
Mixed with the blood of the lynched boys
From its iron bridge hung,
Mixed with the hopes that are drowned there
In the snake-like hiss of its stream
Where I drank of the bitter river
That strangled my dream:
The book studied-but useless,
Tool handled-but unused,
Knowledge acquired but thrown away,
Ambition battered and bruised.
Oh, water of the bitter river
With your taste of blood and clay,
You reflect no stars by night,
No sun by day.

The bitter river reflects no stars-
It gives back only the glint of steel bars
And dark bitter faces behind steel bars:
The Scottsboro boys behind steel bars,
Lewis Jones behind steel bars,
The voteless share-cropper behind steel bars,
The labor leader behind steel bars,
The soldier thrown from a Jim Crow bus behind steel bars,
The 150 mugger behind steel bars,
The girl who sells her body behind steel bars,
And my grandfather’s back with its ladder of scars
Long ago, long ago-the whip and steel bars –
The bitter river reflects no stars.

“Wait, be patient,” you say.
“Your folks will have a better day.”
But the swirl of the bitter river
Takes your words away.
“Work, education, patience
Will bring a better day-“
The swirl of the bitter river
Carries your “patience” away.
“Disrupter! Agitator!
Trouble maker!”you say.

The swirl of the bitter river
Sweeps your lies away.
I did not ask for this river
Nor the taste of its bitter brew.
I was given its water
As a gift from you.
Yours has been the power
To force my back to the wall
And make me drink of the bitter cup
Mixed with blood and gall.

You have lynched my comrades
Where the iron bridge crosses the stream,
Underpaid me for my labor,
And spit in the face of my dream.
You forced me to the bitter river
With the hiss of its snake-like song-
Now your words no longer have meaning-
I have drunk at the river too long:
Dreamer of dreams to be broken,
Builder of hopes to be smashed,
Loser from an empty pocket
Of my meagre cash,
Bitter bearer of burdens
And singer of weary song,
I’ve drunk at the bitter river
With its filth and its mud too long.
Tired now of the bitter river,
Tired now of the pat on the back,
Tired now of the steel bars
Because my face is black,
I’m tired of segregation,
Tired of filth and mud,
I’ve drunk of the bitter river
And it’s turned to steel in my blood.

Oh, tragic bitter river
Where the lynched boys hung,
The gall of your bitter water
Coats my tongue.
The blood of your bitter water
For me gives back no stars.
I’m tired of the bitter river!
Tired of the bars!

Sources:

http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/English_Literature/us_poetry/Hughes/Hughes_poem.html#flag2

Lynching of Aaron Harris

Aaron Harris was lynched on June 12, 1883, for murdering an undisclosed person.

Sources:

http://members.aol.com/wdwylie6/1880-1889.htm

Road, Rapp

Rapp Road is a historically black community in Albany, New York. Most of the families who live there came from the town of Shubuta in Clarke County, MS. In the 1930’s and 1940’s many African-Americans left Clarke County for a better life to live in New York. Today the Rapp Road Community is part of the New York State historic district.

Sources:

http://www.nysm.nysed.gov/rrchp/shubuta.html

The Hanging Bridge

Gayle Graham Gates authored a book entitled, Life and Death in a Small Town: Memories of Shubuta, Mississippi. Within the book she writes:

“Like much of the rest of the South, piney woods Shubuta bears its own burden of racial conflict. In 1917, five black “people”were hanged without trial for murder from the bridge over the Chickasawhay, from which it acquired its name, “The Hanging Bridge.”Again in 1942, two black teenagers were lynched for scaring a white girl the stories say. Neither incident was ever investigated; no suspects ever identified.”

Sources:

http://onlineathens.com/stories/012205/boo_20050122001.shtml

McCarty, Osceola

Osceola McCarty was a poor washerwoman from Shubuta, MS. She became one of the most famous women to have lived in Clarke County. Osceola saved money all of her life to give to The University of Southern Mississippi (USM). She had very little if any connection with the former all-white school, but she saw the importance in education. Her one wish after donating money was to see an African-American student graduate from USM. Because of her generosity Osceola McCarty received national attention and a meeting with President Clinton.

Sources:

http://www.usm.edu/pr/oolamain.htm

http://www.usm.edu/pr/oola1.htm

McKenzie, Rev. Advial

Rev. Advial McKenzie was a human rights activist. He is currently Pastor of Shiloh Baptist Church in Quitman, Clarke County, Mississippi. Rev. McKenzie was speaker at the Neshoba Call for Justice in 2004. At the 43rd Annual Mississippi Civil Rights Martyrs Memorial Service and Conference and Caravan for Justice a Success, Rev. McKenzie was presented with the first Longdale Freedom Fighter Award.

Sources:

http://www.crmvet.org/anc/0706ms.htm

http://www.crmvet.org/anc/0706csg.htm