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B.F. Ford School

African American school during segregation. Mattie Thompson School was the white school during segregation.

New Albany (Union County)

New Albany, the “Fair and Friendly City,”is the county seat of Union County, in the northeast corner of the State of Mississippi. Historically, New Albany was a railroad and manufacturing town, and the manufacturing industry continues to play a large role in the community’s economy. In 1960, Union County had a population of nearly 20,000 residents, 82.5% of which were white. Today Union County has a population of more than 25,000 residents, of which are 83% white, and 15% African American. New Albany has a population of nearly 8,000, and its residents are approximately 75% white, and 12% African American.

The area’s African American community was and is demographically small compared to other parts of the state. Perhaps for this reason, neither New Albany nor Union County experienced the same degree of recurrent violence that visited other Mississippi towns during the Civil Rights era. This should not suggest that the community experienced no violence. In 1925, an African American teenager named L.Q. Ivy was lynched and burned by a mob of Union and Lee County residents who accused him of assaulting a white girl. The event is the only such recorded lynching in Union County, and there are no recorded acts of this kind of violence after 1925.

Sources:

City of New Albany, Miss., Our History, http://www.visitnewalbany.com/history.asp (last visited Apr. 7, 2007).

Census Shows Union County Population Is Up, NEW ALBANY GAZETTE, Feb. 4, 1971, at 1.

U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New Albany, Miss., Fact Sheet, http://factfinder.census.gov (last visisted Apr. 7, 2007).

The History of Jim Crow, Teacher Resources, http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/resources/lessonplans.htm (last visited April 7, 2007).

School Desegregation in Union County

(1875-1950s) The first schools in Union County were established around 1875. In 1901, New Albany began construction of the first building dedicated exclusively to public education. Presumably, this school, which featured eighteen classrooms, offices, a basement, and an auditorium, served only white students. Meanwhile African American students attended a handful of smaller schools scattered throughout the county. The school system remained segregated until 1964, when the New Albany School District began a process of gradual integration.

Much of the early history of Union County’s African American schools is unrecorded. There were at least four such schools in Union County in the first part of the twentieth century: Mitchell School, Oak Grove School, Shiloh School, and an unnamed school that met in an area known as Hatchet Bottom. Each of these schools was supported by the local African American community.

Mitchell School was in operation as early as 1909. The school was an off-shoot of a local church and may have been the same structure that is sometimes referred to as Pine Bluff school. Three to five teachers taught the approximately 200 students who attended the school each year. At both Oak Grove School and Shiloh School, one or two teachers taught approximately 100 students every year. Oak Grove School was a one-room building, and Shiloh School met on the ground floor of a two-story building it shared with the Masonic Lodge. At both schools, parents were responsible for providing books for their children. In the 1950s, these and possibly other schools consolidated at Mitchell School, and students were bussed-in from across the county. Mitchell School remained in operation through the 1950s.

African American students who could afford to go to high school attended the Union County Training School in New Albany. The New Albany School Board purchased the site for the school from the Baker family in 1912. The old Baker home operated initially as a first through eighth grade school and later as a high school until it burned in 1943. From that time until 1948, students attended classes in local churches and in what remained of the old school – its gym and home economics cottage. In 1947, the school board built army barracks on the site to provide additional space. A new building was built at the same location in 1948.

Benjamin F. Ford served as principal of the school from 1921 until 1950 and is credited with expanding the school into a complete first through twelfth grade school. He was responsible for the building of the first gym at an African American school in the area. After his death in 1950, the school board renamed the school the B.F. Ford School, which today serves as a Head Start facility.

One Union County Training School student, Geneva Wade, recalled that it was difficult for African American students to go to high school. To attend the school, many students had to relocate from their homes in the county to New Albany. Often they found families in town who would provide them room and board. It is believed that Principal Ford helped students find after-school work that would permit them to pay rent. Wade recalled, too, the education she and others received:

“At this stage of education for the black youth, emphasis was placed on home economics, agriculture, morals and growing up to be a good productive, self-sufficient citizen. . . . The deepest motivation to the black student of my day was gotten through speeches of inspiration on Friday. There were debates and discussions on problems of the blacks that hindered their progress:”

The positive effect Principal Ford and the Union County Training School had on the local community is inestimable. Wade observed: “Union County Training School produced some such students . . . who were destined to succeed, not because of good facilities, but in spite of deprivation.”

In the wake of the United States Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education, schools across the nation slowly integrated. As in other parts of this state, some white residents in Union County and New Albany proposed establishing a private school to serve white students. But no such school was ever formed. While other communities resisted integration, the Union County school board chose to integrate voluntarily.

The process began in 1964 under the direction of Superintendent of Education J. Bryant Smith. Superintendent Smith devised an innovative plan to integrate public schools: In the first phase of integration, African American students could choose to attend community schools; after two years, attendance was mandatory. Elementary schools were integrated first. Instead of assigning students to grades one through five, the schools assigned students to “primary”or “intermediate”tracks. Students learned at their own pace under the direction of subject-specific teaching teams, each of which included four white teachers and one black teacher. As these students advanced to junior high and high schools, integrated teaching teams continued to instruct their education. When the process of integration completed in 1970, African American students comprised 29 percent of the school district’s students, and 20 percent of the schools’ faculty.

It is believed the children of the Siddell family were the first African American students to attend Union County schools. The children of the Barry and Hill families were the first African American students to attend New Albany schools. In light of many white residents’ bitter reaction to integration, the families feared for their children’s safety. Although there were no reported incidents of violence, it is known that the community’s first African American students to attend integrated schools endured significant harassment by their white classmates. Interestingly, and despite fears of many white families, students in Union County and New Albany schools performed higher on standardized achievement tests in the years immediately after integration began.

Sources:

History of the New Albany Schools, in CITY OF NEW ALBANY, SESQUICENTENNIAL COMMEMORATIVE BOOKLET, NEW ALBANY, MISSISSIPPI 1840-1990 43, 43 (1990).

THE UNION COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY, HISTORY OF UNION COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI 126 (Curtis Media Corp., 1990).

History of the New Albany Schools, supra note 6 at 44.

Geneva Wade, Opportunities for Black Students to Obtain an Education Under a Segregated System and its Effects on Their Lives, in CITY OF NEW ALBANY, SESQUICENTENNIAL COMMEMORATIVE BOOKLET, NEW ALBANY, MISSISSIPPI 1840-1990 20, 20 (1990).

John J. Synon, Blueprint for an Independent School, NEW ALBANY GAZETTE, Jan. 8, 1970, at 2 (recommending ways “individuals could establish judge-free seats of learning”); Chicago Tribune Prints Story of NA Schools, NEW ALBANY GAZETTE, Feb. 5, 1970, at 1.

Chicago Tribune Prints Story of NA Schools, NEW ALBANY GAZETTE, Feb. 5, 1970, at 1 (“Our board fought this and put it off for awhile,”Smith said. “Finally, the board decided not to go the court-route and made a policy decision on integration.”).

History of the New Albany Schools, supra note 6 at 45.

Interview with Alicia Robinson, Vice Pres., NAACP of New Albany, Miss. (Apr. 9, 2007).

Chicago Tribune Prints Story of NA Schools, NEW ALBANY GAZETTE, Feb. 5, 1970, at 1.

Interview with Charlene Cobb, SNCC coordinator in N. Miss. (Apr. 2, 2007).

Chicago Tribune Prints Story of NA Schools, NEW ALBANY GAZETTE, Feb. 5, 1970, at 1.

Ford, Benjamin F.

B.F. Ford was born in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, in 1893 and came to New Albany in 1921 to serve as principal of the African American Union County Training School. At the time, the five-teacher school provided education only through the eighth grade. Ford was respected for his campaign against illiteracy, as well as for his discipline. Under Ford’s leadership, the school soon extended its education through the tenth grade; later he convinced the Union County school board to transform the school into a four-year high school. He acquired a gymnasium for his students long before other African American schools had gymnasiums, and he helped establish the first African American boy scout troop in northeast Mississippi.

After the Union County Training School burned in 1942, Ford oversaw the construction of a new facility. When Ford died in 1950, the school board aptly renamed the school the B.F. Ford High School. The school remained the principal African American high school through the 1950s and much of the 1960s. Today the B.F. Ford High School is a Head Start facility.

Sources:

History of the New Albany Schools

THE UNION COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

Smith, J. Bryant

Superintendent of the New Albany School District from 1964-70. He was responsible for the integration of the city schools.

Lynching of L.Q. Ivy

The last moments of L. Q. Ivy before his lynching, Sept. 20, 1925

(1925) On September 18, 1925, just over the county line in the sleepy Union County community of Rocky Ford, a seventeen year-old timber cutter named L.Q. Ivy was kidnapped by a mob and, two days later, burned alive on the metal stake to which he was bound. Some of the local African American community are old enough to have witnessed the gruesome scene, but it is only spoken about in hushed whispers among the white community. Sadly, the Union County histories published long after the Civil Rights Movement ignore the life and awful death of L.Q. Ivy.

Outlined below is what is known about the lynching, gleaned from a 1990 article published in the New Albany Gazette by Lareeca Rucker. Tellingly, the last line of the article reads: “If you have any information related to this story, please email Lareeca. All correspondence will be kept confidential.”

Timeline:
* Unwed 21-year old mother Bessie Gaines was reportedly raped as she picked peas in the field by her house. She returned home bloodied and bruised, and described her rapist as a black man.

* The sheriff formed a posse, and the posse came along a group of black males, including Ivy, cutting timber. Four men were taken into custody, but for reasons unknown the finger was pointed at Ivy.

* Fearing riots, officials transported Ivy to Aberdeen, several counties away. A mob demanded that he be brought back to Union County for identification by his victim.

* It is reported that four suspects were brought before the rape victim, who identified Ivy as her attacker. At the same time, reports circulated that she was in critical condition and might die. At any rate, she later wavered in her certainty and her father publicly expressed his uncertainty that Ivy was the attacker.

* The sheriff attempted to return Ivy to a safe place, this time Tupelo, but was stopped on the road by the mob, which then kidnapped Ivy.

* The lynching was gruesome, and a lot of what is known of that event comes from an unnamed University of Mississippi graduate student’s 1977 interviews with eyewitnesses. Rucker’s article notes that the student prefers anonymity because he received death threats after publishing his term paper on Ivy’s story.

A Memphis newspaper reporter who happened to be on the scene offered the following account:

“I watched a Negro burned at the stake at Rocky Ford, Miss., Sunday afternoon,” he wrote. “I watched an angry mob chain him to the iron stake. I watched them pile wood around his helpless body. I watched them pour gasoline on this wood. And I watched three men set this wood on fire.”

“I stood in a crowd of 600 people as the flames gradually crept nearer and nearer to the helpless Negro. I watched the blaze climb higher and higher encircling him without mercy. I heard his cry of agony as the flames reached him and set his clothing on fire. ‘Oh God, Oh God,’ He shouted. ‘I didn’t do it. Have mercy.’

“He kicked the chain loose from his ankles,” Roulhac wrote, “but it still held his waist and neck against the iron post that was becoming red with the intense heat. ‘Have mercy, I didn’t do it. I didn’t do it,’ he shouted again. ‘You should have thought of that before,’ someone shouted from the crowd. There was an instant of silence. Then several voices rose in agreement.”

“Nowhere was there a sign of mercy among the members of the mob, nor did they seem to regret the horrible thing they had done. The Negro had supposedly sinned against their race, and he died a death of torture.”

Soon Ivy became quiet, Roulhac said, and “there was no doubt that he was dead. The flames jumped and leaped about his head. An odor of burning flesh reached my nostrils. I felt suddenly sickened. Through the blaze, I could see the Negro struggling and supported.”

Sources:

Lareeca Rucker, The Lynching of L.Q. Ivy, NEW ALBANY GAZETTE, Oct. 18, 2000, at B1, available at http://lareecarucker.tripod.com/pages/lynching.htm (last visited Apr. 7, 2007).

J.L. Roulhac, Sees Negro burned at stake, Rocky Ford mob callous to victim’s suffering, eye witness says, NEWS SCIMITAR, Sept. 25, 1925, at 1.

The Community Citizen

In the 1950s, an African American man from New Albany named J.W. Jones published a semimonthly newspaper called The Community Citizen. It is believed the newspaper, which featured local “negro”news, national stories from newswire services, and editorials, was first published in 1948. The most debated political question of that time was segregation, and The Community Citizen’s content reflected its editors’ pro-segregation position. Its stance against integration won the attention of the Citizens’ Council of Mississippi, an organization comprised of white citizens that mobilized political forces to thwart integration through the 1950s and 1960s. By 1955, the Citizens’ Council had endorsed The Community Citizen, and copies of the newspaper were distributed throughout the state.

The Community Citizen espoused views that have long been discredited. They rejected the efforts of Civil Rights workers to attain equality for all African Americans:

“The sponsors of the NAACP do not care what our final condition may be. The Negroes of the South are employed by and work for white men or corporations controlled by white men. . . . This paper has from time to time warned our people that the NAACP has nothing to lose, even if it falls short of its goal. Why? Because it lives at the expense of ignorant Negroes, and selfish white people. . . . It does not show adult sense to indicate that you want to go some place you know you are not wanted.”

Likewise, the editors rejected integration:

“The Community Citizen from the beginning of its publication has upheld segregation, and any person who has as much forethought as a 10 year old kid can see that segregation is the means by which the southern Negro has made more progress than any other group of his class in the United States.”

The newspaper applauded African Americans who resisted integration. Among its most celebrated segregationists was Reverend Samuel Watson, pastor at Watson Grove Missionary Baptist Church in New Albany and world traveler, who preached the merits of segregation to his congregation. The Community Citizen praised Watson as “a truthful and honest leader for his race.”Watson, the editors wrote, “is a man of wisdom and vision, and there are but few Negroes in his class.”

It is not known for how many years The Community Citizen remained in publication, nor is the newspaper’s effect on the larger community apparent.

Sources:

The Community Citizen has won fame for itself, THE COMMUNITY CITIZEN, June 23, 1955, at 1.

This conclusion is drawn from the fact that the newspaper published itself as volume 6 in 1954, volume 7 in 1955, and volume 8 in 1956. Logically, its first volume would have been published in 1948.

New Albany News, THE COMMUNITY CITIZEN, Jan. 13, 1955, at 2.

THE COMMUNITY CITIZEN, Aug. 11, 1955, at 2.

The ugly truth about the NAACP, THE COMMUNITY CITIZEN, Nov. 3, 1955, at 1.

A new classification for newspapers: “Puppy papers”, THE COMMUNITY CITIZEN, Sept. 8, 1955, at 1.

New Albany Brief, THE COMMUNITY CITIZEN, Aug. 11, 1955, at 1.

New Albany News, THE COMMUNITY CITIZEN, Nov. 3, 1955, at 3.

Hill, Siddell

Members of the Siddell, Hill, and Barry families were the first to integrate Union County schools.

Jones, J.W.

Jones was the owner and publisher of The Community Citizen, which circulated in New Albany, during the Civil Rights Movement.