Anderson United Methodist Church

This church was once pastored by the Rev. R. L. T. Smith. During the 1960s, the building was the Anderson United Methodist Church, which is now located on Hanging Moss Road. Police reports often tracked NAACP meetings in order to […]

Armstrong III, Thomas Madison: Oral History

Thomas Armstrong participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. He says that one of Ross Barnett’s speeches encouraged him to participate in the Freedom Rides, because Barnett said that Mississippian’s were happy with the present conditions. The video was filmed […]

Bailey, Samuel

Sam Bailey was a leader of the Progressive Voters’ League as early as 1956. A strong supporter of the NAACP, he traveled the state with his close friend Medgar Evers. In 1961, Bailey, with Joseph Broadwater and Burnett Jacob, filed […]

Bates, Mrs. Gladys Noel

Mrs. Gladys Noel Bates was an eighth grade science teacher at Smith Robertson School in 1948 when she filed a lawsuit, later joined by R. Jess Brown against the Jackson public school system to equalize salaries for white and black […]

Benjamin Brown Park

In 1995, the Jackson City Council named this park in honor of Benjamin Brown. On May 10, 1967, when two African American police officers attempted to arrest a speeder on Lynch Street at Jackson State, they were harassed by swarms […]

Braun-Reinitz, Janet: Oral History

Mural artist Janet Braun-Reinitz participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. She speaks about her involvement in the New York CORE chapter and her decision to become a Freedom Rider. Her Freedom Ride began in St. Louis, Missouri, and continued […]

Bus Sit-In of 1961

At Lamar and Capitol Streets on April 20, 1961, three Jackson State students, George Washington, Doris Bracey, and Walter Jones, and a Campbell College student, Johnny Barbour, Jr. boarded a city bus and sat in the white-only section. When they […]

COFO Office

This small commercial building once occupied by state Senator Henry J. Kirksy was the Mississippi headquarters for the 1964 Freedom Summer Project coordinated by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO). COFO provided statewide organizational support and engaged in direct action […]

Campbell College

Today, Jackson State University encompasses the former Campbell College, founded in 1890 in Vicksburg, MS. The college moved to Jackson in 1898 and was supported by the African Methodist Episcopal Church until the time of its last graduating class in […]

Catholic Cathedral of St. Peter the Apostle and Chancery Office of Catholic Diocese

On the northwest corner of Amite Street and West Street is the Catholic Cathedral of St. Peter the Apostle, with its mosaic of interracial children over the door. Throughout the 1960s, St. Peter’s and other Catholic churches in Jackson admitted […]

Cemetery, Elmwood

Mr. Aaron Henry, the long-time NAACP president (1921-1997) is buried here along with his wife, Mrs. Noelle Michael Henry. His civil rights activities spanned an amazing four decades, and began in the 1950s. He was first elected to serve as […]

Central United Methodist Church

This church and its historically African American congregation were pioneers in the Jackson Civil Rights Movement, hosting an annual meeting of the Mississippi Negro Democrats Association as early as 1951. Central United Methodist was one of twenty local churches that […]

Citizen’s Council Office

On the southeast corner of Amite Street and Congress Street is the Plaza Building, where the white supremacist Citizens’ Council had its office and published its newsletter, The Citizen, for several years. Sources: “Civil Rights Driving Tour of Hinds County”produced […]

City Jail and Municipal Court Building

The city jail and municipal court building were the sense of significant legal events related to the Jackson civil rights movement. The Tougaloo Nine were incarcerated in the city jail on March 27, 1961, and held for thirty-two hours after […]

Civil Rights Groups’ Offices

In 1954, the NAACP’s new Mississippi field secretary, Medgar Wiley Evers, opened his first office in this building, with his wife, Myrtle, serving as his secretary. The NAACP Legal Defense Fund was also located here. Within a year, Evers moved […]

Collins Funeral Home

In 1961, Mrs. Clarie Collins Harvey, owner of Collins Funeral Home, organized Woman Power Unlimited, along with other charter members Dr. Jessie Mosley and Mrs. A.M.E. Logan. Woman Power ministered to the needs of Freedom Riders, sending food, clothes, linens, […]

Davidov, Marv: Oral History

Marv Davidov participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. He describes the conditions at Parchman State Penitentiary. The video was filmed for the documentary The Children Shall Lead (link). Marv Davidov from Winter Institute on Vimeo. His oral history may also […]

East 1960 Boycott

The Easter 1960 boycott of the downtown businesses on Capitol Street was the beginning of the most active phase of the Jackson civil rights movement. The boycott was led by the NAACP and by the Campbell College dean of religion, […]

Edward Lee Motel

Located in the 100 block of Church Street is the Edward Lee Hotel, one of two African American owned hotels where civil rights dignitaries and entertainers stayed. The other African American owned hotel was the Summers Hotel located on West […]

F.W. Woolworth Store

After demands for the desegregation of commercial businesses went unanswered, the NAACP decided to engage in direct action. On May 29, 1963, three Tougaloo students – Anne Moody, Pearlena Lewis, and Memphis Norman – entered the back door of Woolworth’s […]

Farish Street Baptist Church

Led by Pastor S. Leon Whitney during the 1960s, the Farish Street Baptist congregation supported the movement and welcomed mass meetings. The church hosted weekly voter registration workshops during 1961 and held nightly meetings in support of the boycott of […]

Farish Street Neighborhood

For more than 100 years, this 125-acre spread has served as the unofficial center of black culture in Mississippi’s capital. The neighborhood is home to both residences and businesses, and many of its historic buildings have been in continuous use […]

Filner, Robert: Oral History

United States Representative Robert Filner participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. He explains the conditions at the city jails, the county jails, and Parchman State Penitentiary in Mississippi. The oral history was filmed for the documentary The Children Shall Lead […]

First Baptist Church of Jackson

Medgar Evers led the first attempt to integrate First Baptist Church in 1963. It was not until 1973 that Rev. R.L.T. Smith and Rev. Emmett Burns became the first African Americans to worship here. Lawrence Manguary became its first African […]

Former Greyhound Bus Station

On May 28, 1961, nine Freedom Riders, who were taking part in protests throughout the South against segregation in interstate travel, were arrested at the Greyhound Bus Station. Many were taken to the county prison farm in Raymond. Later, several […]

Former Home of Jane Schutt

In December 1963, the Ku Klux Klan burned a cross in the yard of this home, which was then located in a white, middle-class neighborhood. In response, Mrs. Jane Schutt decorated the cross with Christmas tree lights. At a 1963 […]

Former Morning Star Baptist Church

In 1961, a group of Freedom Riders, including a priest, were permitted to stay overnight at Morning Star, spreading their blankets and sleeping bags on the floor. After that night, other groups came and slept at Morning Star. Mass meetings […]

Former New Jerusalem Baptist Church

This is the last church Medgar Evers visited before his assassination. Evers attended a celebration at the church that night after leading a day of picketing on Capitol Street in protest of an injunction against all demonstrations. Sources: “Civil Rights […]

Former Pearl Street A.M.E. Church

The Pearl Street A.M.E. Church was one of twenty local churches where nightly meetings were held to support the boycott of downtown merchants. The pastor, Rev. G.R. Haughton, was a popular speaker at protest meetings. After one such meeting in […]

Former Site of Trailways Busway Station

The first of two busloads of Freedom Riders – nine African American males, two African American females, and one white female – arrived here from Montgomery, Alabama, on May 25, 1961. When they attempted to use the bus station’s white-only […]

Former YWCA

In the 1960s, this building was the Jackson headquarters for the YWCA. Though the national YWCA was a progressive institution, facilities at the headquarters in Jackson were available to whites only. However, Mrs. Barbara Barnes, director of the Y’s main […]

Freedom Rides

In the summer of 1961, the Freedom Riders, a group of mostly young people, both black and white, risked their lives to challenge the system of segregation in interstate travel in the South. The purpose of the rides was “to […]

Freedom Rides

Date of Event: May-November 1961 The Freedom Rides began in Washington DC on May 4, 1961, with thirteen Freedom Riders (7 black, 6 white) from CORE who aimed to travel by bus through the South in order to bring attention […]

Galloway United Methodist Church

In 1963, contrary to the policy of the national United Methodist Church, Galloway’s board voted to bar African Americans from worship at their church. When five African Americans were denied admission to Galloway that spring, the pastor, Dr. W.B. Selah, […]

Gordon, Albert: Oral History

Born in Belgium, Albert Gordon moved to the United States at age seven. At twenty-seven years old, he participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. Gordon states that his Jewish heritage influenced his decision to become a freedom rider. He ponders […]

Hall, Carsie; Young, Jack; and Brown, R. Jess

Carsie Hall, Jack Young, and R. Jess Brown were the only African American lawyers who were licensed to practice in the state in the early 1960s. They often served as local counsel with out-of-state attorneys who had not been admitted […]

Hinds County Courthouse

In Hinds County court, attorney R. Jess Brown represented Freedom Riders, like Stokely Carmichael, Rita Carter, Catherine Burks, James L. Farmer, and Rev. Robert L. Pierson, the son-in-law of New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller. Rev. Pierson celebrated High Mass for […]

Hinds County Data Dashboard

Demographic data that helps add context to many historical events.

Illinois Central Railroad Union Station

The Illinois Central Railroad Union Station is where a group of Freedom Riders, including Stokely Carmichael, were arrested in 1961. Sources: “Civil Rights Driving Tour of Hinds County”produced by the Associated Press, Tougaloo College, the Mississippi Department of Archives and […]

Jackson City Hall

Here at city hall, numerous ordinances were enacted over the decades to reinforce segregation in Jackson. One such ordinance, passed in the 1940s, prohibited taxicabs from transporting African Americans and whites together unless the African American was the white person’s […]

Jackson Nonviolent Movement

In 1961 and 1962, the Jackson Nonviolent Movement (JNM) was an offshoot of SNCC. The group coordinated housing for the Freedom Riders, planned mass meetings at area churches, conducted voter registration and nonviolent protest workshops, and planned the 1961 picketing […]

James Eastland Federal Courthouse

Since Mississippi’s state and local governments and judicial system were generally supportive of segregation in the 1960s, civil rights activists had to rely on the federal courts for justice. Freedom Riders’ cases were appealed from this federal courthouse all the […]

King Edward Hotel

Constructed in 1923, the now vacant King Edward Hotel served for many years as a hub of white political and social activity for the City of Jackson. The hotel was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976 […]

Kochtitzky, Robert

Robert B. Kochtitzky, a religious worker and civil rights sympathizer, had his house bombed on November 18, 1967. No one inside was injured. Sources: “Civil Rights Driving Tour of Hinds County”produced by the Associated Press, Tougaloo College, the Mississippi Department […]

Lafayette, Bernard: Oral History

Bernard Lafayette participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961.

Lanier High School

On May 30, 1963, students at Lanier High School participated in a walk out protesting Woolworth’s treatment of some students from Tougaloo. School officials called police who showed up with dogs to break up their congregation of freedom singing on […]

Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law

Founded in 1963 at the request of President John F. Kennedy and often called the “President’s Committee,”the Lawyers’ Committee was a group of volunteer attorneys from across the country who came to the state to represent persons who could not […]

Lewis, John: Oral History

United States Representative John Lewis participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. He speaks about the importance of nonviolence and public image for civil rights demonstrations. In the second clip, Lewis describes the violence in Montgomery. The video excerpts come […]

Liberty House Cooperative

Originally located in the 600 block of North Farish Street, provided purchasing and marketing for 16 handcraft co-ops. In its peak year, 1969, Liberty House grossed $1.25 million. While the Liberty House store in Jackson closed in 1972, three stores […]

Logan, A.M.E.

Mrs. Logan housed and fed many civil rights workers and was a founding member of Woman Power Unlimited. As the official hospitality person for the NAACP, she greeted and provided rides for many civil rights workers and coordinated meals for […]

Lynch Street Shooting

On May 14, 1970, a protest among Jackson State students erupted on Lynch Street. Just ten days before, four students protesting the Vietnam War were killed in Ohio at Kent State by National Guardsmen. Partially in response to the deaths […]

McCoy Federal Building

Across Farish Street, on the southwest corner stands the McCoy Federal Building. In 1983, this building was named in honor of Dr. A.H. McCoy; it became the first federal building in the nation to be named after an African American. […]

McDew, Charles “Chuck”: Oral History

Charles “Chuck” McDew participated in the civil rights movement in many parts of the American South, including Mississippi. He was a pivotal movement activist in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). In this interview, he begins by discussing segregated seating […]

Medgar Evers Neighborhood Guild Community Center

In a structure developed by R.L.T. Smith, the Medgar Evers Neighborhood Guild Community Center was established by Ted Seaver, a white social worker from New England, who came to Jackson as a civil rights activist in the summers of 1964 […]

Medgar Evers’ Home

Medgar Evers and his wife, Myrlie, bought this home with a GI mortgage in 1957 on what was then Guynes Street. The home was in a new subdivision developed by and for African Americans, just off Missouri Street, which separated […]

Millsaps College

In the 1950s, students from Millsaps College and Tougaloo College held meetings attended by Medgar Evers to discuss race relations. This institutional cooperation was the result of the efforts of Tougaloo sociologist Ernst Borinski, who in the 1930s immigrated to […]

Mississippi Free Press

The Mississippi Free Press, a four-page social and civil rights weekly newspaper, was written by Medgar Evers and John Salter, among others, and later edited by Henry J. Kirksey in Hinds County. The Free Press was printed in Holmes County […]

Moody, John: Oral History

John Moody participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. He first describes the mob violence in Birmingham. Moody then speaks about the incarceration conditions in Mississippi. You can learn more about the Freedom Rides in the documentary The Children Shall Lead (link). […]

Mulholland, Joan Trumpower: Oral History

Joan Trumpower Mulholland participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. She describes the conditions at the prison in comparison to the jail. The video was filmed for the documentary The Children Shall Lead (link).   Joan Trumpower Mulholland from Winter Institute […]

New Mt. Zion M.B. Church

The New Mt. Zion M.B. Church hosted a meeting of the Progressive Voter’s League on May 15, 1956. The pastor, Rev. D. B. Rushing, held the meeting in order to protest the shooting death of Ben Brown. The protest urged […]

Nixon, Sandra: Oral History

Sandra Nixon participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. This video was filmed for the documentary The Children Shall Lead (link). Sandra Nixon from Winter Institute on Vimeo. Her oral history may also be viewed here.   Interview Data Name of […]

North State Street

North State Street was the route used by the “March Against Fear”participants, who went from Tougaloo College to downtown Jackson. Located within the 5000 block of North State Street was the former office of Pulitzer Prize-winning editor Mrs. Hazel Brannon […]

Nussbaum, Rabbi Perry

Rabbi Nussbaum’s home was bombed on November 21, 1967. He and his wife were home at the time but escaped injury. Rabbi Nussbaum, together with the Catholic bishop Joseph Brunini, and the Episcopal bishop Duncan Gray, led whites in interracial, […]

O’Neal-McCray, Helen: Oral History

Helen O’Neal-McCray participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. She describes the jail conditions for the Freedom Riders. The video excerpts come from the documentary The Children Shall Lead (link). Hellen O’Neal-McCray from Winter Institute on Vimeo. Her oral history may […]

Old Capitol Museum

The Old Capitol Museum houses an exhibit providing an excellent overview of the Mississippi civil rights movement. Sources: “Civil Rights Driving Tour of Hinds County”produced by the Associated Press, Tougaloo College, the Mississippi Department of Archives and History, and the […]

Palmer, Hazel

Mrs. Hazel Palmer, and elementary school maid, was an activist for the Freedom Democratic Party. In 1965, she and her husband filed a lawsuit challenging the 1963 closing of Jackson’s municipal swimming pools. A federal court upheld the pool closings, […]

Person, Charles: Oral History

Charles Person participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. He speaks about how the Freedom Riders tested the various facilities and accommodations in the bus stations. He also describes the violence in Anniston, Alabama, and how Walter Bergman lost his […]

Poor People’s Corporation

This location was the third of four sites of the Poor People’s Corporation, organized in 1965 in Mississippi by SNCC and CORE workers. The Poor People’s Corporation was an early result of a change in focus of the Civil Rights […]

Pratt Memorial United Methodist Church

Pratt Memorial was also one of Jackson’s twenty churches where nightly meetings were held to support the boycott of downtown merchants. On the day following the murder of Benjamin Brown, a group of 150, including Charles Evers, marched form Pratt […]

Republic of New Africa

The Republic of New Africa (RNA) was an African American nationalist organization that sought to secure lands in five southern states. At around sunrise on August 18, 1971, a shootout erupted during a police raid at this location, and Jackson […]

Rose Street

Several houses along this portion of Rose Street were rented to members of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), and Woman Power Unlimited. James Bevel and other visitors stayed in this area while they […]

Shirley, Dr. Ollye

Dr. Ollye Shirley was an accomplished leader in public television, children’s programming and advocacy, civil rights activism, public education, community service, and more. She and her late husband, Dr. Aaron Shirley, were paragons of civil rights in Mississippi. (Photo: Dr. Shirley […]

Siegenthaler, John: Oral History

U.S. Attorney General’s Assistant John Siegenthaler observed the Freedom Rides in 1961. He speaks about the violence at Anniston, Alabama, and his attempt to convince Diane Nash to end the Freedom Rides on behalf of the federal government. He arrived […]

Singleton, Helen: Oral History

Helen Singleton participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. She explains that Freedom Riders received education about nonviolence and describes one of her experiences on the bus. The video excerpts come from the documentary The Children Shall Lead (link).   Helen […]

Singleton, Robert: Oral History

Robert Singleton participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. He describes being arrested in Jackson and the conditions in the city jail. The oral history was filmed for the documentary The Children Shall Lead (link).   Robert Singleton from Winter Institute […]

Smith Park

Across from the Plaza Building where the Citizen’s Council Offices were located is Smith Park, which was segregated through most of the 1960s. Sources: “Civil Rights Driving Tour of Hinds County”produced by the Associated Press, Tougaloo College, the Mississippi Department […]

Smith Robertson Museum

Named for successful barber Smith Robertson, Jackson’s first African American alderman, this 1894 structure was renovated in the late 1920s and was Jackson’s first public school for African Americans. The school was closed in 1971 during public school desegregation. It […]

Smith, Rev. R.L.T.

Rev. R.L.T. Smith has been dubbed “the minister of the Jackson civil rights movement.”He pastured several churches during the 1960s, including Mount Elam Baptist Church in Pearl, Mississippi, and New St. John Missionary Baptist Church, now located on Page Avenue. […]

Southern Christian Institute

Located in Edwards, MS, Southern Christian Institute was a private boarding school for black students during the Jim Crow era, when public schools for black students only went through the 8th or 11th grades. It was founded after Reconstruction, in […]

St. Andrew’s Episcopal Cathedral

St. Andrew’s maintained an interracial “open door”policy during the 1960s under the leadership of Bishop Duncan M. Gray, Sr., Reverend Edward Harrison, and Reverend Christoph Keller, African Americans were allowed to worship there freely. The State Sovereignty Commission kept up […]

St. Mark’s Episcopal Church

At the corner of Pearl Street and Poindexter Street is St. Mark’s Episcopal Church, an African American church associated with St. Andrew’s Episcopal Church. St. Mark’s members participated in interracial fellowship during the 1960s. Sources: “Civil Rights Driving Tour of […]

State Capitol Building

In the New Capitol building, completed in 1903, the Mississippi legislature institutionalized “Jim Crow”practices. For example, the legislature passed two bills in 1962 that kept the Jackson city bus line segregated. In the late ’50s and ’60s, the Mississippi State […]

State Fairgrounds

For decades leading up to the 1960s, the state of Mississippi had staged two annual state fairs – one for whites only, followed by a “colored”fair. In 1961, the NAACP, its youth councils, and others demonstrated at the “colored”fair, carrying […]

Statue of Medgar Evers

Mrs. Mirtes Gregory, Andrew Lee, E.J. Ivory, and others led the Medgar Evers Statue Fund committee to raise $60,000 to commission a life sized statue of Medgar Evers. A white artist, Mr. T. J. Warren from Rolling Fork, MS, created […]

Steven’s Kitchen

From the late 1950s through the 1960s, the upscale restaurant at this location was the meeting place for local professionals and for many of those who came from out of town to help with the civil rights movement. Among the […]

Summers Hotel

Located within the 600 block of West Pearl Street is the Summers Hotel, one of two African American hotels where civil rights leaders and other visiting African Americans stayed. The other hotel was the Edward Lee Hotel located on Church […]

The Alamo Theater

Opened in 1942, the Alamo Theater was a centerpiece of the African-American business community on Farish Street in Jackson, MS. Source: http://cinematreasures.org/theaters/8718

The Clarion-Ledger

The Clarion-Ledger is Jackson’s daily morning newspaper and the most widely circulated newspaper in Mississippi. For decades, the Clarion-Ledger and the now-defunct evening paper, the Jackson Daily News, were published by a family-owned company that supported segregation and transmitted to […]

The Tougaloo Nine

In 1961, nine African American students who were members of the Tougaloo NAACP Youth Council participated in Mississippi’s first civil rights “read-in”at the whites-only Jackson Municipal Public Library. On March 27, 1961, the Tougaloo Nine, four females and five males, […]

The White Citizens’ Council

        The White Citizens’ Council was for a time the largest and most influential white supremacist organization in Mississippi, deeply involved in seemingly all aspects of state and local affairs.   The organization, which originated in the small Mississippi Delta town […]

Tougaloo Child Development of Mississippi

Formerly located on this site was a house owned by Mrs. Annie Smith. Mrs. Smith was instrumental in founding the Tougaloo Center of the Child Development Group of Mississippi (CDGM) around 1965. The Child Development Group of Mississippi was one […]

Tougaloo College

Tougaloo College was founded in 1869 by the American Missionary Association on land formerly occupied by an antebellum cotton plantation worked by slaves. One structure that remains from that time is the building housing the president’s office known as “The […]

University of Mississippi Medical Center

UMMC is where Medgar Evers, Benjamin Brown, Phillip Gibbs, and Earl Green died. Sources: “Civil Rights Driving Tour of Hinds County”produced by the Associated Press, Tougaloo College, the Mississippi Department of Archives and History, and the Mississippi Development Authority (Tourism […]

Virden Grove Baptist Church

Virden Grove is one of several churches in this community that were active in the Jackson civil rights movement and took part in various civil rights planning meetings. Many of the activities at these churches were held in secret; no […]

WLBT Television

On April 15, 1965, the Office of Communication of the United Church of Christ petitioned the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to deny renewal of Lamar Life Insurance Company’s broadcast license to operate WLBT. The petition was filed on the grounds […]

Winter, Gov. William F.

Born in 1923 in Grenada, Mississippi, William F. Winter served in the armed forces in World War II and the Korean War. He was awarded a BA from the University of Mississippi in 1943 and an LL.B. in 1949. He […]

Young, Jack

Jack Young was a self-taught civil rights attorney. Young lived in Jackson with his wife, Aurelia, and their two children. A former letter carrier, Jack Young was admitted to the Mississippi bar in 1952 and became a point man in […]